Department of Biomedical Engineering and Computational Science BECS

Programme

Monday, June 3, 2013

8:00–11:45Hands-on sessions (Locations: BioMag Laboratory, Haartmaninkatu 4, P-floor / Cognitive Brain Research Unit (CBRU, Siltavuorenpenger 1 B, Helsinki)
Dr. Pantelis Lioumis, BioMag Laboratory, Finland / Miika Leminen, M.Sc. University of Helsinki, Finland

    BioMag (Nexstim)

  • Dominic Kraus
  • Jessica Guzman Lopez
  • Jussi Toppila
  • Matleena Kukkonen
  • Mikko Nyrhinen
  • Sheng H. Wang
  • Petteri Hyvärinen
  • Victor Hugo de Oliveira e Souza
  • CBRU (BrainAmp EEG)

  • Alina Leminen
  • Elisa Kallioniemi
  • Elyana Saad
  • Isabella Premoli
  • Lilli Kimppa
  • Petteri Hyvärinen
  • Sini Jakonen

12:00–13:00Lunch (to be paid by participants)

13:00–13:30Registration (CBRU)

13:30–17:30Hands-off session: Basics of TMS (Lectures, Location: CBRU, Lecture hall 2, at Siltavuorenpenger 1 B)
13:30–15:00 Prof. Risto Ilmoniemi, Aalto University, Finland
Introduction to TMS and TMS-EEG
Paper: Ilmoniemi and Kicic 2010  /  Slides

15:00–16:00 Prof. Jukka Sarvas, Aalto University, Finland
TMS-EEG field computing and inverse methods
Paper: Sarvas 2013

Abstract: This review talk starts by discussing how the TMS pulse induces electric field in the brain, and how the field at a given point can be approximately computed by the spherical head model. Next the EEG forward potential field problem is discussed. The quasi-static field equations are presented, and the numerical solution is formulated in terms of the lead-field matrix. As numerical field computing methods the FEM, BEM and the analytical solution in the spherical head model are shortly reviewed.

In the latter part of the talk the EEG inverse problem is discussed. For the given measured EEG data, the task is to find the unknown neural current sources which have caused the measured EEG. The EEG measurement data usually form a finite time-series. Three types of inverse methods, or algorithms, are discussed.

The first type is represented by the popular minimum norm estimate (MNE) method, which makes use of the lead-field matrix and estimates the unknown sources at each moment of time separately but not utilize the extra information in the time-domain. The method often badly suffers from the usual non-uniqueness of the solution of that type of the 'momentary' inverse problem.

The second type of inverse methods is represented by the beam-former method. This method makes use both of the lead-field matrix and the time-domain information. It can beat the non-uniqueness of the inverse problem if the unknown sources consist of a finite number of dipolar sources and their time-courses are uncorrelating.

The third type of inverse methods consists of the blind source separating (BBS) methods, like the independent component analysis (ICA). These methods make only use of the measured EEG time-series data and do not need the lead-field matrix, or the forward field model, at all. If the data satisfies some extra statistical assumptions, the BBS methods can separate the EEG and time-courses of the underlying individual unknown sources from the measured data.


16:00–17:15 Prof. Jari Karhu, Nexstim Oy, Finland
What do we stimulate with TMS and tDCS and what do we measure with EEG ? Columns, tracts and uncertainty.
Papers: Ruohonen & Karhu 2010, Ruohonen & Karhu 2012

17:30–18:30Transportation to Sannäs Manor (Sannaistentie 540, Sannäs, Finland)

18:30–19:00Registration continues (Sannäs Manor)

19:00–20:00Hands-and-mouth session (Dinner)

20:00–23:00Handshake session (Presentation of students and speakers, Miniposters and other methods to learn to know each other)


Tuesday, June 4, 2013

7:30–8:30Breakfast

8:30–9:00Opening of the Science Factory (Prof. Risto Ilmoniemi)

9:00–10:00Coaching sessions

10:00–11:45Brains-on session
Dr. Vadim Nikulin, Charité - University Medicine Berlin, Germany
A general introduction to evoked responses, advance analysis of neuronal oscillations and neurophysiological artifacts in TMS-EEG
Papers: Nikulin et al 2003, Nikulin et al 2007, Nikulin et al 2011  /  Slides

Abstract: TMS-EEG research is based to a large extent on the analysis of evoked responses (ER). To facilitate understanding of ER, I will present basic generic models of evoked responses: additive, phase reset and baseline-shift. I will especially emphasize the role of neuronal oscillations in the generation of ER. Apart from explaining neuro-physiological aspects of neuronal oscillations, I will also present novel techniques for the extraction of neuronal oscillations from multichannel data, for studying the reactivity of oscillations to stimuli (including TMS) and for relating amplitudes of oscillations to target functions, such as reaction times, MEP amplitudes etc. Finally, I will outline an importance and ways to differentiate between genuine TMS-EEG responses and the concomitant neuro-physiological artifacts, such as auditory and somatosensory responses.

12:00–13:00Lunch

13:00–14:45Brains-on session
Prof. Synnöve Carlson, University of Helsinki, Finland
Modulating brain activity with TMS in remote interconnected brain areas
Papers: Strafella et al 2001, Hannula et al 2010  /  Slides

14:45–15:15Coffee

15:15–17:00Brains-on session
Prof. Paolo Rossini, Catholic University of The Sacred Heart, Italy
TMS and TMS-EEG applications in Alzheimer's disease
Paper: D'amelio and Rossini 2012  /  Slides

Abstract: Increasing evidences suggest that, together with clinical, neuropsychological and neuroimaging data, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) could be a useful, non invasive, low-cost and repeatable measure of biological progression in AD and it may be used in the clinical setting to improve diagnostic power and to monitor and predict the effect of therapy. Several TMS studies have demonstrated that cortical excitability is enhanced in AD and primary motor cortex presents functional reorganization. Although the best hypothesis for the pathogenesis of AD remains the degeneration of cholinergic neurons in specific regions of the basal forebrain, the application of specific TMS protocols pointed out a role of other neurotransmitters. TMS may be useful in discriminating between physiological and pathological brain aging at least at the group level. Moreover repetitive TMS might become useful in the rehabilitation of AD patients. Integrated approaches utilizing TMS together with others neuro-physiological techniques, such as high-density EEG, and structural and functional imaging as well as biological markers are proposed as promising tool for large-scale, low-cost, and noninvasive evaluation of at-risk populations. In recent years, a promising tool has been introduced that allows the co-registration of the EEG activity -which has a temporal resolution of a few milliseconds- during TMS; studies using these techniques described the nature of the TMS- evoked EEG responses in order to extend the understanding about the activation mechanisms of TMS; moreover they have confirmed the potential of TMS-EEG as a tool for basic neuro-physiological research and possibly for diagnostic purposes.

17:00–18:00Brainstorming session

18:00–18:45Poster Session I

  1. Alexandra Vossen
  2. Alina Leminen
  3. Anna-Katharine Brem
  4. Aurora D'Atri
  5. Elina Mäkelä
  6. Elyana Saad
  7. Francesca Bocca
  8. Jaakko Nieminen
  9. Johanna Metsomaa
  10. Sergei Tugin
  11. Henry Railo
  12. Lilli Kimppa
  13. Maja Rogić
  14. Petteri Hyvärinen
  15. Rositsa Neumann Poryazova
  16. Stefania Ficarella
  17. Tuomas Mutanen
  18. Victor Hugo de Oliveira e Souza

19:00–20:00Dinner

20:00–24:00Brains-off-duty session (outdoor activities and other relaxation)

00:00–7:30Brains-off session


Wednesday, June 5, 2013

7:30–8:30Breakfast

8:30–10:15Brains-on session
Dr. Mouhsin Shafi, Harvard Medical School, USA
Brain Networks and Noninvasive Brain Stimulation
Papers: Shafi et al 2012, Shafi et al 2013  /  Slides

10:30–12:15Brains-on session
Prof. Christoph Herrmann, University of Oldenburg, Germany
Brain entrainment via transcranial alternating current stimulation
Papers: Neuling et al 2012, Neuling et al 2013  /  Slides

Abstract: It has been repeatedly demonstrated that EEG oscillations reflect cognitive processes. So far, however, EEG oscillations have only been correlated with cognitive functions. A new method now allows to demonstrate their causal role in brain function. During transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) an alternating current is applied to the scalp of human subjects and interferes with EEG oscillations. Multiple experiments will be introduced that all apply tACS at different frequencies in order to modulate both EEG oscillations and cognitive functions. The results demonstrate that tACS can modulate ongoing EEG oscillations. This modulation, in turn, seems to modulate cognitive processes such as detection and perception. We hope that further investigations will reveal the potential of this method to be applied also in therapy.

12:15–12:30Group picture

12:30–13:45Lunch

13:45–15:30Brains-on session
Prof. Carlo Miniussi, University of Brescia, Italy
Combining tDCS and TMS with EEG offers new prospects in neuroscience: basic protocols of a multimodal approach
Papers: Miniussi & Thut 2010, Miniussi et al 2012  /  Slides

15:30–16:00Coffee

16:00–17:45Brains-on session
Prof. Marcello Massimini, University of Milan, Italy
Measuring consciousness: a TMS/EEG perturbational approach
Papers: Massimini et al 2009, Rossanova et al 2012  /  Slides

17:45–18:15Brainstorming session

18:15–19:00Poster Session II

  1. Angelina Maric
  2. Dominic Kraus
  3. Elisa Kallioniemi
  4. Faranak Farzan
  5. Giulia Lauri
  6. Isabella Premoli
  7. Jaan Tulviste
  8. Jessica Guzman Lopez
  9. Jussi Toppila
  10. Koos Zevenhoven
  11. Lari Koponen
  12. Marine Vernet
  13. Matleena Kukkonen
  14. Mikko Nyrhinen
  15. Niko Mäkelä
  16. Sheng H. Wang
  17. Sini Jakonen
  18. Nele De Geeter

19:00–20:00Dinner

20:00–24:00Brains-off-duty session (Sauna 20:00-22:00 and other activities)

00:00–7:30Brains-off session


Thursday, June 6, 2013

7:30–8:45Breakfast

8:45–10:00Coaching sessions

10:00–11:45Brains-on session
Dr. Juha Silvanto, Aalto University, Finland
Studying cortico-cortical connectivity and cortical activation states in the visual system using TMS
Papers: O'Shea et al 2008, Silvanto et al 2008

12:00–13:15Lunch

13:15–15:00Brains-on session
Prof. Gregor Thut, University of Glasgow, Scotland, UK
Using TMS and EEG to probe the role of brain oscillations in visual perception and attention
Papers: Thut et al 2011, Thut et al 2012

Abstract: There is converging evidence from many fields in neuroscience including psychophysics, animal electrophysiology, and human electro-/magnetoencephalography (EEG/MEG) that brain oscillations in lower frequency bands play an important role in perception. This talk will cover the contribution of combining transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with EEG to this topic. It will focus on rhythms of the visual brain (mostly occipito-parietal alpha) and how its spectral features (power and phase) relate to TMS-inferred visual cortex excitability, and to visual perception. Although a growing body of EEG/MEG-data shows correlations between oscillatory state and behavior, only by pairing instantaneous measures of oscillatory and excitability state can we see directly that it is fluctuations in brain oscillations that underlies behavior. I will survey studies on the relationship between spontaneous variability in ongoing brain oscillations, visual cortex excitability, and visual performance measures. I will then present data on the experimental manipulation of ongoing oscillations over visual areas through non-visual input and its consequences on perception. I will cover manipulations through endogenous attention (attention research), sounds (research on crossmodal interactions) or occipito-parietal rhythmic TMS, at frequencies that characterize EEG-signals (entrainment). The data show that oscillatory EEG-phase and power can be used to derive transient or more sustained state markers of visual cortex receptivity, and that these markers can be experimentally modulated to alter brain states and thus functions in desired directions. This illustrates the contribution of TMS-EEG to the study of the causal role of brain oscillations in perception and cognition, with implications for understanding TMS actions.

15:00–15:30Coffee

15:30–17:15Brains-on session
Dr. Paolo Manganotti, University of Verona, Italy
Coregistration of EEG and TMS the role and the modulation of oscillatory activity during and after brain stimulation. Some insight in clinical setting: epilepsy, motor disorders and loss of consciousness.
Papers: De Felice et al 2011, Manganotti et al 2012

Abstract: The so called "perturbational method" of transcranial magnetic stimulation on the EEG is based on the possibility to combined the different neurophysiological techniques with the new compatible system and new method of analysis. Novelty are in any case combined with limitations and pitfalls as always. Method of analysis of frequencies in time with the morlet method will be illustrated and applied to clinical model. In particular the possibility the effect of EEG TMS in epilepsy during different physiological states as the awake, the sleep or the sleep deprivation and as well as the effect of EEG TMS in disease of consciousness. Different data and possible future prospectives will be discussed.

17:15–18:15Brainstorming session

19:00–20:00Dinner

20:00–24:00Brains-off-duty session (outdoor activities and other relaxation, optional visit to Porvoo)

00:00–7:30Brains-off session


Friday, June 7, 2013

7:30–8:30Breakfast

8:30–11:45Presentations (24/7 summaries of lectures, literature browsing)  /  24/7 Slides  /  Literature

12:00–13:00Lunch

13:00–14:00Transportation to Helsinki

15:00–18:45Hands-on sessions (Locations: BioMag Laboratory, Haartmaninkatu 4, P-floor / Cognitive Brain Research Unit (CBRU, Siltavuorenpenger 1 B, Helsinki)
Dr. Pantelis Lioumis, BioMag Laboratory, Finland / Miika Leminen, M.Sc. University of Helsinki, Finland

    BioMag (Nexstim)

  • Anna-Katharine Brem
  • Elina Mäkelä
  • Faranak Farzan
  • Giulia Lauri
  • Jaan Tulviste
  • Marine Vernet
  • Nele De Geeter
  • CBRU (BrainAmp EEG)

  • Alexandra Vossen
  • Angelina Maric
  • Aurora D'Atri
  • Francesca Bocca
  • Maja Rogić
  • Rositsa Neumann Poryazova
  • Stefania Ficarella


Saturday, June 8, 2013

9:00–11:00Data analysis workshop (Location: IT classroom in Maarintalo (Maari B), Aalto University, Otaniemi, Espoo)
Dr. Julio C. Hernandez-Pavon, Aalto University
Topics: basic analysis (filtering, averaging), more advanced methods (PCA, SSP, ICA), source localization  /  Slides

11:00–12:30Lunch (to be paid by participants)

12:30–15:00Data analysis workshop continues
Johanna Metsomaa, M.Sc. Aalto University
Topics: basic analysis (filtering, averaging), more advanced methods (PCA, SSP, ICA), source localization  /  Slides